Resulting Safety Initiatives

This accident underscored the risks associated with undetected fuel leaks to aircraft operating on long range overwater routes. At the time of the accident, rulemaking associated with safety standards for all extended operations, regardless of the number of engines installed, was already underway. As a result of this work, the low fuel alerting requirements for two, three, and four-engine aircraft were included into a new Appendix K to 14 CFR part 25, Extended Operations (ETOPS).Low fuel alerting requirements are contained in - Section K25.1.4(a)(3) of Appendix K to 14 CFR part 25, Amendment 120:

  • "An alert must be displayed to the flightcrew when the quantity of fuel available to the engines falls below the level required to fly to the destination. The alert must be given when there is enough fuel remaining to safely complete a diversion. This alert must account for abnormal fuel management or transfer between tanks, and possible loss of fuel. This paragraph does not apply to airplanes with a required flight engineer."

The complete text of Appendix K to 14 CFR part 25 is available at the following link: Appendix K

EASA developed similar standards, which are contained in: EASA low fuel warning requirements - Section CS 25.1305(a)(2) of Certification Specifications CS-25, Amendment 12, for basic transport airplane type certification.

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