Resulting Safety Initiatives

Section 121.693(e) was changed, effective August 31, 1980, to require the names of all passengers be maintained as part of the load manifest.

This accident, as well as the Eastern Airlines Flight 401 accident in 1972 was a catalyst for changes which resulted in the eventual adoption of CRM philosophies by many major carriers and, finally, by the FAA. CRM was first adopted in 1981 by United Airlines following a 1979 NASA workshop. Other airlines quickly followed suit. In 1990 the FAA initiated a voluntary "Advanced Qualification Program" (AQP), which included CRM training. CRM training has since become a regulatory requirement. A paper titled "The Evolution of Crew Resource Management Training in Commercial Aviation," written by a group at the University of Texas, explains the historical development of CRM training.

The most recent advisory material related to CRM (as of June 2007) is available at the following links: (newer versions may be created at any time)

Advisory Circular (AC) 120-51E, "Crew Resource Management Training," dated January 22, 2004

AC 120-71, "Standard Operating Practices for Flight Deck Crewmembers," dated December 13, 1991 - Part 1, Part 2

AC 60-22, Aeronautical Decision Making - Part 1, Part 2

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