• Japan Airlines B-747 crashed at Gunma Prefecture, Japan, on August 12, 1985. An aft pressure bulkhead ruptured in flight, resulting in a sudden decompression event and failure of a portion of the fuselage tail, vertical fin, and failure of all four aircraft hydraulic systems due to loss of fluid. The flight crew had no primary flight controls and attempted to maintain aircraft directional control by manipulating engine thrust. The aircraft subsequently crashed into a mountain. Aircraft hydraulic system isolation was compromised by the lack of physical separation of all four systems, which came together in the tail section of the aircraft in an area that sustained damage due to the bulkhead rupture.

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