Accident Threat Categories / Industries

Accident summaries organized relative to the threats that were a major factor in each accident.

Accident Threat Categories
Abrupt Maneuver (AMAN)
Abnormal maneuver includes abrupt, evasive maneuvers.

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Bird (BIRD)
Occurrences involving collisions/near collisions with bird(s).

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Collision With Obstacle(s) During Takeoff and Landing (CTOL)
Collision with obstacle(s) during takeoff or landing while airborne.

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External Load Related Occurrences (EXTL)
Occurrences during or as a result of external load or external cargo operations.

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Fuel Related (FUEL)
One or more powerplants experienced reduced or no power output due to fuel exhaustion, fuel starvation/mismanagement, fuel contamination/wrong fuel, or carburetor and/or induction icing.

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Ground Collision (GCOL)
Collision while taxiing to or from a runway in use.

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Ground Handling (RAMP)
Occurrences during (or as a result of) ground handling operations.

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Icing (ICE)
Accumulation of snow, ice, freezing rain, or frost on aircraft surfaces that adversely affects aircraft control or performance.

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Loss of Control – Ground (LOC–G)
Loss of aircraft control while the aircraft is on the ground.

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Loss of Control – Inflight (LOC–I)
Loss of aircraft control while, or deviation from intended flightpath, in flight.

Loss of control inflight is an extreme manifestation of a deviation from intended flightpath. The phrase "loss of control" may cover only some of the cases during which an unintended deviation occurred.

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Low Altitude Operations (LALT)
Collision or near collision with obstacles/objects/terrain while intentionally operating near the surface (excludes takeoff or landing phases).

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Medical (MED)
Occurrences involving illnesses of persons on board an aircraft.

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Midair Collisions (MAC)
Air proximity issues, Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS)/Airborne Collision Avoidance System (ACAS) alerts, loss of separation as well as near collisions or collisions between aircraft in flight.

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System / Component Failure or Malfunction (non-powerplant) (SCF–NP)
Failure or malfunction of an aircraft system or component other than the powerplant.

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System / Component Failure or Malfunction (powerplant) (SCF–PP)
Failure or malfunction of an aircraft system or component related to the powerplant.

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Unintended Flight in IMC (UIMC)
Unintended flight in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC).

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Wind Shear or Thunderstorm (WSTRW)
Flight into wind shear or thunderstorm.

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Accident summaries organized relative to the industries that were a major factor in each accident.

Industries
Aerial Application
Use of aircraft to enhance food, fiber and bio-fuel production, protect forestry and control health-threatening pests.

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Aerial Observation
Use of aircraft to observe fish/game, law enforcement, photography/filming, property, traffic, other.

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Air Tour / Sightseeing
Provide the public with aerial access to scenic areas. Air Tour is normally operated under Part 135 or 136 and Sightseeing is under Part 91.

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Business
Business is the use of aircraft for a single company's use such as corporate travel.

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Commercial
Commercial is the use of aircraft for profit using a Part 135 operating certificate.

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Electronic News Gathering
The use of aircraft to gather news, traffic or other noteworthy information. May also be used as a pooled resource.

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External Load
The use of helicopters to provide a means of transporting equipment outside of the aircraft via a cable/line or other device.

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Firefighting
The use of helicopters to provide a means of transporting equipment and personnel supporting firefighting operations.

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Helicopter Air Ambulance
The use of helicopters to provide a means of transporting people in urgent need of medical assistance. (Patient or medical team transport or positioning, interfacility and scene flights)

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Instructional / Training
The use of helicopters to provide flight instruction (basic and advanced).

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Law Enforcement
The use of helicopters to provide a means of transporting personnel and equipment during law enforcement operations.

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Logging
The use of helicopters to provide a means of transporting personnel and equipment during forestry operations.

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Offshore
The use of helicopters helicopter transportation, PHI offers services to the offshore Oil and Gas, onshore mining.

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Personal / Private
The use of helicopters for personal/private use.

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Utilities Patrol / Construction
The use of helicopters to provide a means of transporting personnel and equipment during patrol and construction operations for both power and pipeline systems.

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